Biomass as a renewable fuel, means a material composed of plant material in the form of products, by-products, waste and residues of plant mass.
When it comes to biomass as a renewable fuel, means a material composed of plant material in the form of products, by-products, waste and residues of plant mass. According to aggregation, the effect of the mode energy use, biomass is split into solid, liquid and gas.
The solid biomass include residues of crop production, the remains of pruning horticulture, forestry residues, cover crops of fast-growing plants – in English-speaking countries known as Short Rotation Coppice (SRC), especially fast-growing forest of selected municipal waste remains the wood processing industry, remains the primary and secondary processing of agricultural products, and more.
Under liquid biomass to liquid biofuels include – vegetable oils, vegetable oils transesterifikovana – biodiesel and bioethanol.
Gaseous biomass is biogas, which can be produced from animal manure and energy crops (maize and grass silage), but as a raw material can be used and other waste materials. Gaseous, liquid, and so, biomass, and represent products of gasification and pyrolysis of biomass.
Directive 2001/77/EC provides a definition of Biomass: Biomass is the biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste. This directive recommends a mixture of municipal waste does not include the term “biomass” for purposes of this Directive.
Biomass is organic material that is created from plants and animals (microorganisms), it contains the time stored solar energy.
Plants absorb the sun’s energy in a process called photosynthesis.
Chemical energy from plants transferred to humans and animals through the process of eating.
Biomass is among the renewable energy sources because they can constantly grow new trees and plants, and waste will always be.
Wood waste or garbage (biomass) can be burned procedure that produces electricity or heat which provides for industrial and residential buildings.
Biomass combustion is not the only way to produce this kind of energije.Biomasa can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels some of the (ethanol, biodiesel).
Methane gas is the main ingredient of natural gas. Crops like corn and sugar cane can be fermented to produce ethanol.
Biomass burning pollutes the air in but not nearly as much as do fossil fuels. Responsible for the pollution of sulfur that occurs as a product of burning which can lead to acid rains.
Vojvodina has a relatively high potential of biomass, which occurs as a “surplus” in agricultural production. Total biomass production of perennial crops in Serbia is over 12.5 million tons per year, and most of it is not used in a reasonable and rational way.
The energy per year could be obtained by using biomass in Serbia is estimated at 2.68 million tonnes of oil equivalent. Of these, 1.66 million tons of oil equivalent relating to agriculture, and about one million tons of forest biomass.
Total annual biomass energy potential in Serbia is at a level of 40 percent energy value of coal produced annually in our mines.
It can be expected that the use of wood biomass play an important role in energy production in Serbia in the coming years, given that the ratification of the Kyoto protocol, our country will be required to reduce the amount of carbon – carbon that is emitted mainly by burning fossil fuels.
In all of this should involve the state that certain incentive funds have aided the development of renewable energy markets.
It is therefore not surprising that some agricultural proizođači reduces food production and moves to produce electricity, and in the next ten years is expected conversion of significant areas of agricultural land in the so-called. energy crops.
Ministry of Mines and Energy of the Government of Serbia introduced one of the most important innovations in the law, introducing categories vested manufacturers in the production of electricity using renewable energy sources.
The law provides and incentives for the privileged producers, such as subsidies, tax, customs and other benefits.